Before going to the voice recital, I always wondered how the program (the list of music) is chosen. I began trying the Boolean operator methods from your summary heuristic and quickly concluded that only the And operator is suitable for key words voice types and recitals (I chose voice types over music genre because it is more specific and often determines genre).
And is the best option because it only searches articles comparing recitals and voice types that might occur in these events while the or operation and not operator slow my research by finding all articles containing the either one or both of the words. With the operator I found J. T. Dalton’s thesis on recital programing.
Because the outsider guide genre asks me to provide key insights after experiencing a voice recital for the first time , I wrote heavily on the difference between the actual experience and expectations my audience, an outsider with no friends majoring music to refer to , might assume after reading online blogs and seeing taped recordings of these events.
One good example is when I addressed the discrepancy of the actual dress code and the presumed dress code for an audience member in the What to Wear section. In this instance, not only is my textual content a comparison but also my visual content where I put a hyperlink to a YouTube video of a music teacher advising you to dress up in the beginning of the section to the contrast the photo of hoodie wearing music majors at the end of the section.
The genre and my audience also influenced my sources by making me find a source an outsider would refer to before going and a source an outsider could only find after going there. Which is why chose a recital guideline handout written by Kirsten Phillips ( a music teacher) to compare with response from an informal interview with a music major who regularly attends recitals for a grade.
Overall, the research and writing for this genre made me realize that when writing for an unfamiliar genre, sometimes my initial research might not be useful at all or used in a different way than originally planned. For example, my initial interest in finding how music is chosen for the recital was heavily trumped by my shock from realizing how wrong the etiquette guides were after going to the recital.
I originally planned to use J. T. Dalton’s analysis of recital programing for a full section after the introduction to provide a well-researched background of how the recital is traditionally structured and compare my experience to historical trends. After realizing the major discrepancy between presumed and actual etiquettes, I changed my initial findings from a full section to a few short paragraphs in the How to Enjoy the Music section. A full detailed comparison shrunk down to a detailed advice on a talking point.
Recognizing flexibility in research and organization is very important when faced with new writing tasks because pertinent sources are hard to find and the focal point of the piece could easily change in different stages of writing. This is very proven in architectural writings for studio projects where the thesis and its supporting facts change after each meeting with the professor.
Target Audience: Any invitee to a Syracuse voice recital.
Time/Date Attended: 8:00 pm February 17 2018
Having performed in violin recitals for most of my public school education, I was always intrigued by voice recitals. The school orchestra rarely ever performed with singers as they were quartered off with the jazz club. So when a friend asked me to go see her friend Sarah Schriner’s senior recital at Crouse Hall, the answer was obvious.
Assuming the occasion was very formal as it was for my graded violin recitals, I dressed in my best suit and tie, expecting everyone else would too.
I was completely wrong.
What to REALLY Expect
To college music students, final recitals do not determine the singer’s grade as you would expect but is rather a way for students to achieve the Performance Honors title (SUVPA, 2). It is really a social event for students to impress you with what they have learned.
Although formality isn’t heavily required for the audience, you can definitely expect it from the artist’s quality performance to her every introduction. The recital is strictly organized into 4 stages: beginning introduction to welcome attendees and teachers, the first set of three classical songs, intermission (a 15 minute dress change), the last set of three contemporary songs, and closing remarks (SUVPA, 2). Formality is so important to the Schriner that you can definitely expect her to step off and on the stage before introducing the next song and its required background performers even though they sometimes are the same performers as before!
Another attention to formality is the performer’s attire. Even though all the performers wore black, you can definitely tell the instrumental performers and the reciting artist apart. While the performers wore shirts, dress pants and shoes in an indistinctive matte black for all the songs, Schriner wore shiny silver shoes, earrings and necklace to contrast her jet black braid hair and \ pattern embroidered velvety black dress for only the classical songs. To better suit her contemporary and jazzy songs such as “The End of a Love Affair” by Edward C. Redding (1965), she wore a silky dark blue open back top, black dress pants, and shiny slim black stilettos. To invite you into mood of the music even more, Schriner even released her tied hair at the climax of the song: a true testament to performance formality.
But for the audience, you can expect the opposite.
What to Wear
While many music teachers, through their handouts, would advise you to wear from business casual or formal clothing, it is definitely not the case for college recitals (Phillips, “Recital Etiquette).
In the sparsely seated Setnor auditorium, attendees wore very casual clothing ranging from hoodies and sweatpants to sweaters and jeans. Some even wore their most comfortable pajamas. After asking my shark pajama-wearing neighbor why the dress is code is so relaxed, she explained that the recital is “a casual social performance to celebrate the singer’s last year”, not a formal academic test.
She went on explaining that music students are required to attend at least 12 recitals each year. Thus to music students, who were most of the attendees, the recital is a very common occurrence to fulfill a quota, warranting casual clothing. To blend in, you can definitely comfortable casual clothing and be able to focus on the performance instead of itchy collars or uncomfortable shoes!
How to Act
While the attendee dress code may be lax, there are a few unspoken rules that you can tell regular attendees follow strictly.
Many online handouts by music teachers such as Kristin Phillips’ “Recital Etiquette” may describe seating as random and “first come first serve”, but when you enter Crouse Hall’s glamorous wooden bracketed Setnor auditorium you can clearly see an order. Instinctively, groups of attendees distance themselves from the stage based on their relationship to the recitalist where friends and family sit closest, followed by professors, and lastly dispersed pairs of classmates who are there to fill their quota. So when picking out seats or saving seats for a friend, please consider your group’s relationship to the artist to not hurt his or her feelings!
Another unspoken rule that many music teachers repeat but never elaborate is when to stop chatting, cheering and clapping. Phillips simply suggests, “refrain from any talk, whisper, or chatter during the performances” in her list of rules, but fails to mention exactly when (Phillips, “Recital”).
Throughout the recital, you can clearly hear chatting, cheering and clapping start exactly when Schriner the recitalist stops and end suddenly when she steps on the stage as if the audience of mostly music students is trained to do so. However, they really are. During the intermission (15 minute break), my shark pajama wearing neighbor explains to me that freshman music students were scolded by TAs until they follow the rule automatically. So, to avoid glares and shushes, no noise after the singer steps on stage!
The last rule and the most important rule is to not criticize the performer in any way during the entire performance and the reception! If you do so be ready to be ignored by your neighbors for the entire event!
How to Enjoy the Music
One way to enjoy the music is to find a famous performance of it prior to the recital by locating the recital program (the list of music and its composers) on the school page and then compare that performance to the recitalist’. But to avoid breaking the last rule, you can only share your insights with yourself in this case.
“The better way” my shark pajama wearing friend told me, “is to talk about how the voice recitalist sings with the instrumental performer”. Meaning, she recommends discussing with others about how the tone, pace and pitch of the recitalist’s voice compares or reacts to the melody produced by the background instrument. For instance, I told her I really appreciated how Schriner treated the “La Vie En Rose” climax where her crescendo (an increase in loudness) is paired with the background piano’s diminuendo (a decrease in loudness and pitch) to emphasize her voice as it increases pitch and loudness.
Like many recitals before hers, Shriner’s voice recital is split between classical and contemporary with mostly German composers for classical songs (Dalton, 7). J.T. Dalton, a graduate music student who wrote his thesis on college voice recitals patterns, predicted accurately the nationality of Shriner’s songs, which were pre-approved by her professor Jonathan English (SUVPA, 2).
Dalton states that for classical selections, “Austro-German composers were most prominent at 38 percent, followed by Americans at 17.6 percent” compositely from 297,888 recitals from 1880 to 1975 (7). He furthers by explaining that, “women recitalists tended to favor American contemporary works more than did the men” (53). Shriner’s list of songs perfectly follow this trend if you look at her program where two of the three classical songs are German and five of all the 8 songs are American.
In his conclusion that “dominance of the Austro-German group is borne out by the prominence of composers Schubert, Schumann”, Dalton even names Schubert, the composer of a song Schriner’s professor chose (84). By knowing this background, you can engage a conversation with not only the recitalist but also her mentor during reception!
When the performance ends, the social aspect of the event comes alive in the reception. After closing remarks, the recitalist will guide the audience to the reception giving you the opportunity to meet, talk, and give flowers to her.
Conversations usually start with congrats or thanks for the performance but are mainly about the recitalist’s personal life. If you don’t know the artist personally, you can talk about the performance but they are usually are in the two types mentioned previously. To me, the reception is what makes recitals so great because you get to know vocal artists from a personal basis before they become inaccessible mega stars we could barely see on stages miles away.
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Dalton, J. T. (1980). “An Analysis Of Programming Patterns Of Undergraduate Solo Vocal Recitals As Found In Selected Educational Institutions For The Academic Years 1964-65 Through 1974-75”. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (303028160). 23 Feb. 2018, https://search.proquest.com/docview/303028160?accountid=14214